As the time pass, the technology of active packaging has develop so much and bring out newer method for improving the active packaging system such as oxygen scavenger, ethylene scavenger, antimicrobial packaging and controlled release of sulfur dioxide. The package system must act as barrier to the external environment and resist to the respiration issues to extend the products shelf life. For fruit and vegetable products, there are three main factor that plays important post in determining the quality of product. That are product type, processing and ripening process and time to harvest. Fruit and vegetable are living product undergoing ripening at the end of process. An important part of the process is the product’s respiration, in which the product consumes oxygen and expels carbon dioxide, water and heat. These products also expel ethylene. Both respiration and ethylene liberation depend on temperature.
Ethylene scavenger are widely use on a sachet that contain potassium permanganate to absorb the ethylene in the packaging. By presence of ethylene, it will induces the fruit repining and accelerate the fruit softening and ageing process. In the other word, we can say that ethylene scavenger traps the ethylene produces by fruits and vegetables. Oxygen is also one of the factor that accelerate the spoilage of fruit and vegetable. Oxygen scavenger are added to enclosed packaging to help reduce the level of oxygen in packages and to control mould growth which limit the shelf life. Antimicrobial packaging act to control the growth micro-organism in packaged food. This packaging could be self-sterilizing or sanitizing. The other way to avoid browning and prevent antimicrobial growth, we can control release the sulphur dioxide that act as antioxidant preservative. However, the sulfur dioxide and sulphite also promotes several health issue besides brings advantages to the product shelf life. The approach to developing a plastic based packaging film to control gas of sulfur dioxide and some approach to replace these gasses in food has been discuss earlier such as use of plant metabolised as antioxidant microbial agent.
The main factor that effect the rate of respiration is temperature. The significant temperature to the respiration rate is the lower the temperature, the lower the rate of respiration and the longer the shelf life of the products. The temperature during distribution need to be considered during distribution process and the temperature must be within the range 2-4 ˚c. in this assignment also discussed about the suitable and appropriate way to store these products at retail shop ; temperature, presentation or display, moisture, and cooling shelve. Nowadays, the perforation technology is one of the leading technology in packaging system. They are perforation with needle, electrostatic energy and laser perforation. The advantages and disadvantages of the use of active packaging incorporated with fruit and vegetable product are too numerous. The benefits of this technology to the manufacturer, retailer as well as consumer far outweigh the drawbacks. Nevertheless some critical points should be considered in this technology.